MiFIR Article 2

Article 2 : Definitions
  1. For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions apply:

    1. ‘investment firm’ means an investment firm as defined in Article 4(1)(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    2. ‘investment services and activities’ means investment services and activities defined in Article 4(1)(2) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    3. ‘ancillary services’ means ancillary services as defined in Article 4(1)(3) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    4. ‘execution of orders on behalf of clients’ means execution on behalf of clients as defined in Article 4(1)(5) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    5. ‘dealing on own account’ means dealing on own account as defined in Article 4(1)(6) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    6. ‘market maker’ means a market maker as defined in Article 4(1)(7) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    7. ‘client’ means a client as defined in Article 4(1)(9) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    8. ‘professional client’ means a professional client as defined in Article 4(1)(10) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    9. ‘financial instrument’ means a financial instrument as defined in Article 4(1)(15) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    10. ‘market operator’ means a market operator as defined in Article 4(1)(18) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    11. ‘multilateral system’ means a multilateral system as defined in Article 4(1)(19) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    12. ‘systematic internaliser’ means a systematic internaliser as defined in Article 4(1)(20) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    13. ‘regulated market’ means a regulated market as defined in Article 4(1)(21) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    14. ‘multilateral trading facility’ or ‘MTF’ means a multilateral trading facility as defined in Article 4(1)(22) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    15. ‘organised trading facility’ or ‘OTF’ means an organised trading facility as defined in Article 4(1)(23) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    16. ‘trading venue’ means a trading venue as defined in Article 4(1)(24) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    17. ‘liquid market’ means:

      (a) for the purposes of Articles 9, 11, and 18, a market for a financial instrument or a class of financial instruments, where there are ready and willing buyers and sellers on a continuous basis, and where the market is assessed in accordance with the following criteria, taking into consideration the specific market structures of the particular financial instrument or of the particular class of financial instruments:

             (i) the average frequency and size of transactions over a range of market conditions, having regard to the nature and life cycle of products within the class of financial instrument;

             (ii) the number and type of market participants, including the ratio of market participants to traded financial instruments in a particular product;

             (iii) the average size of spreads, where available;

      (b) for the purposes of Articles 4, 5 and 14, a market for a financial instrument that is traded daily where the market is assessed according to the following criteria:

             (i) the free float;

             (ii) the average daily number of transactions in those financial instruments;

             (iii) the average daily turnover for those financial instruments;
    18. ‘competent authority’ means a competent authority as defined in Article 2(1)(26) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    19. ‘credit institution’ means a credit institution as defined in Article 4(1)(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 1 );
    20. ‘branch’ means a branch as defined in Article 4(1)(30) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    21. ‘close links’ means close links as defined in Article 4(1)(35) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    22. ‘management body’ means a management body as defined in Article 4(1)(36) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    23. ‘structured deposit’ means a structured deposit as defined in Article 4(1)(43) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    24. ‘transferable securities’ means transferable securities as defined in Article 4(1)(44) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    25. ‘depositary receipts’ means depositary receipts as defined in Article 4(1)(45) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    26. ‘exchange-traded fund’ or ‘ETF’ means an exchange-traded fund as defined in Article 4(1)(46) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    27. ‘certificates’ means those securities which are negotiable on the capital market and which in case of a repayment of investment by the issuer are ranked above shares but below unsecured bond instruments and other similar instruments;
    28. ‘structured finance products’ means those securities created to securitise and transfer credit risk associated with a pool of financial assets entitling the security holder to receive regular payments that depend on the cash flow from the underlying assets;
    29. ‘derivatives’ means those financial instruments defined in point (44)(c) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU; and referred to in Annex I, Section C (4) to (10) thereto;
    30. ‘commodity derivatives’ means those financial instruments defined in point (44)(c) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2014/65/EU; which relate to a commodity or an underlying referred to in Section C(10) of Annex I to Directive 2014/65/EU; or in points (5), (6), (7) and (10) of Section C of Annex I thereto;
    31. ‘CCP’ means a CCP within the meaning of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 648/2012;
    32. ‘exchange-traded derivative’ means a derivative that is traded on a regulated market or on a third-country market considered to be equivalent to a regulated market in accordance with Article 28 of this Regulation, and as such does not fall within the definition of an OTC derivative as defined in Article 2(7) of Regulation (EU) No 648/2012;
    33. ‘actionable indication of interest’ means a message from one member or participant to another within a trading system in relation to available trading interest that contains all necessary information to agree on a trade;
    34. ‘approved publication arrangement’ or ‘APA’ means an approved publication arrangement as defined in Article 4(1)(52) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    35. ‘consolidated tape provider’ or ‘CTP’ means a consolidated tape provider as defined in Article 4(1)(53) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    36. ‘approved reporting mechanism’ or ‘ARM’ means an approved reporting mechanism as defined in Article 4(1)(54) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    37. ‘home Member State’ means a home Member State as defined in Article 4(1)(55) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    38. ‘host Member State’ means a host Member State as defined in Article 4(1)(56) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    39. ‘benchmark’ means any rate, index or figure, made available to the public or published that is periodically or regularly determined by the application of a formula to, or on the basis of the value of one or more underlying assets or prices, including estimated prices, actual or estimated interest rates or other values, or surveys and by reference to which the amount payable under a financial instrument or the value of a financial instrument is determined.
    40. ‘interoperability arrangement’ means an interoperability arrangement as defined in Article 2(12) of Regulation (EU) No 648/2012;
    41. ‘third-country financial institution’ means an entity, the head office of which is established in a third country, that is authorised or licensed under the law of that third country to carry out any of the services or activities listed in Directive 2013/36/EU, Directive 2014/65/EU; Directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 1 ), Directive 2009/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 2 ), Directive 2003/41/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 3 ) or Directive 2011/61/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 4 );
    42. ‘third-country firm’ means a third-country firm as defined in Article 4(1)(57) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    43. ‘wholesale energy product’ means wholesale energy products as defined in Article 2(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1227/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 5 );
    44. ‘agricultural commodity derivatives’ means derivative contracts relating to products listed in Article 1 of, and Annex I, Parts I to XX and XXIV/1 to, Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council ( 6 );
    45. ‘liquidity fragmentation’ means a situation in which:

      (a) participants in a trading venue are unable to conclude a transaction with one or more other participants in that venue because of the absence of clearing arrangements to which all participants have access; or

      (b) a clearing member or its clients would be forced to hold their positions in a financial instrument in more than one CCP which would limit the potential for the netting of financial exposures;
    46. ‘sovereign debt’ means sovereign debt as defined in Article 4(1)(61) of Directive 2014/65/EU;
    47. ‘portfolio compression’ means a risk reduction service in which two or more counterparties wholly or partially terminate some or all of the derivatives submitted by those counterparties for inclusion in the portfolio compression and replace the terminated derivatives with another derivative whose combined notional value is less than the combined notional value of the terminated derivatives.
  2. The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 50 to specify certain technical elements of the definitions laid down in paragraph 1 to adjust them to market developments.

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